C.T. (Tat) Smith, Emeritus Professor

CTS photo June 2013 (3)

Home Campus:
U of T St. George

Univ. of Maine, Forestry, 1984.

Other Degrees:
M.S., Univ. of Vermont, Forestry, 1978.
B.A., Univ. of Virginia, Economics, 1972.

Honours & Awards:
Dean Emeritus (Forestry)
President, Canadian Institute of Forestry
Chair of the Board, Invasive Species Centre
Fellow, Society of American Foresters

Contact Information:

Office location: 3038 Earth Sciences Centre

Office: (416) 978-4638

Fax: (416) 978-3834



Research Interests:

  • Forest ecology and soils
  • Carbon cycling in forest ecosystems
  • Bioenergy from sustainable forestry
  • Sustainable natural resource management
  • Environmental certification
  • Environmental impacts of land application of wood ash and municipal and pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment biosolids and effluents

Teaching This Academic Year:

  • GGR 205 H1F Introduction to Soil Science
  • GGR 405 H1S Sustainable Systems of Natural Resource Management
  • FOR 310 H1S Bioenergy from Sustainable Forest Management
  • FOR 1610 H1F Sustainable Forest Management & Certification

Call For Students:

We are seeking a PhD student to work on a multidisciplinary project investigating the long-term carbon and nutrient dynamics following clearcut harvesting a red spruce – balsam fir forest in northern Maine. This project has high relevance to sustainable forest management and renewable energy priorities in the modern forest sector for this region. The overall research project involves: quantifying trends in ecosystem carbon and nutrient pools 35 years after clear-cutting the balsam fir-red spruce forest at Weymouth Point paired-watershed study area; comparing 35-year ecosystem carbon pool dynamics with carbon dynamics predicted by an IPCC-relevant forest carbon budget model (e.g. CBM-CFS3); and informing development of criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management (SFM) in forest policy and certification systems adopted for balsam fir – red spruce forests in northern New England.
A BSc Hons. or MSc degree in Forestry, Soil Science, Physical Geography or a related natural resource field is required. A strong foundation in forest ecology, forest soils and biogeochemistry is preferred, and experience with quantitative modeling is highly desired. This position requires working independently and in a team setting with academic, forest industry and federal and state agency collaborators. Strong written and oral communication skills are essential. The project will involve field work at the remote Weymouth Point study area, laboratory analysis at collaborator facilities at the University of Maine, SUNY-ESF in Syracuse, NY and the University of Toronto, and computer modeling of carbon and nutrient dynamics and pools.

Selected Publications:

Refereed Articles

  • Gan, J., J.W.A. Langeveld and C.T. Smith. 2014. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects. Environmental Management 53(2): 333-342. Lloyd, Scott A., C. Tattersall Smith and Göran Berndes. 2014. Potential opportunities to utilize mountain pine beetle-killed biomass as wood pellet feedstock in British Columbia. The Forestry Chronicle 90(1): 80-88.
  • Lattimore, Brenna; C. Tattersall Smith; Brian Titus; Inge Stupak & Gustaf Egnell. 2013. Woodfuel Harvesting: A Review of Environmental Risks, Criteria and Indicators, and Certification Standards for Environmental Sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 32 (1-2): 58-88.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2012. Biomass Utilization Allocation in Biofuel Production: Model and Application. International Journal of Forest Engineering 23(1) .
  • Gan, J., C.T. Smith, and J.W.A. Langeveld. 2012. Effects of considering greenhouse gas consequences on fertilizer use in loblolly pine plantations. Journal of Environmental Management 113: 383-389. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.09.015
  • Mead, D.J. and C.T. Smith. 2012. Principles of nutrient management for sustainable forest bioenergy production. WIREs Energy Environ 2012, 1: 152–164 doi: 10.1002/wene.3 (Published Online: 16 Aug 2012)
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2011. Drivers for renewable energy: a comparison among OECD countries. Biomass & Bioenergy 35(11): 4497-4503.
  • Stupak, Inge, Brenna Lattimore, Brian D. Titus, C. Tattersall Smith. 2011. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest fuel production and harvesting: a review of current standards for sustainable forest management. Biomass & Bioenergy 35(8): 3287-3308.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2011. Optimal Plant Size and Feedstock Supply Radius: A Modeling Approach to Minimize Bioenergy Production Costs. Biomass & Bioenergy 35(8): 3350-3359.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2010. Coupling Greenhouse Gas Credits with Biofuel Production Cost in Determining Conversion Plant Size. Silva Fennica 44(3): 497-510.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2010. Integrating biomass and carbon values with soil productivity loss in determining forest residue removals. Biofuels 1(4): 539–546.
  • Lattimore, B., C.T. Smith, B.D. Titus, I, Stupak, G. Egnell. 2009. Environmental factors in woodfuel production: risks, and criteria and indicators for sustainable practices. Biomass &  Bioenergy 33(10): 1321-1342.
  • Jianbang Gan, H. Michael Rauscher, C.T. Smith, Sarah Ashton, Larry Biles, Daniel Cassidy, Darwin  Foster, Matthew R. Howell, William G. Hubbard, Ben Jackson, Chyrel Mayfield, Donald J. Mead, Semida Silveira, and Eric Taylor. 2008. The Southern US Forest Bioenergy Encyclopedia: Making Scientific Knowledge More Accessible. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 32(1): 28-32.
  • Mayfield, C.A., C. D. Foster, C.T. Smith, J. Gan and S. Fox. 2007. Opportunities, Barriers, and Strategies for Forest Bioenergy and Bio-Based Product Development in the Southern United States. Biomass and Bioenergy 31: 631-637.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2007. Co-benefits of utilizing logging residues for bioenergy production: the case for East Texas, USA. Biomass & Bioenergy 31: 623-630.
  • Sivanpillai, R., Srinivasan, R., Smith, C.T., Messina, M.G., Wu, X.B. 2007. Estimating regional forest cover in east Texas using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 9(1): 41-49.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2006. Availability of logging residues and potential for electricity production and carbon displacement in the USA. Biomass & Bioenergy 30(12): 1011-1020.
  • Gan, J. and C.T. Smith. 2006. A comparative analysis of woody biomass and coal for electricity generation under various CO2 emissions reductions and taxes. Biomass & Bioenergy 30 (4): 296-303.
  • Sivanpillai, Ramesh, Charles T. Smith, R. Srinivasan, Michael G. Messina, and X. Ben Wu. 2006. Estimation of managed loblolly pine stand age and density with Landsat ETM+ data. Forest Ecology and Management 223: 247-254.
  • Sivanpillai, R., Charles T. Smith, R. Srinivasan, Michael G. Messina, X. Ben Wu. 2005. Estimating regional forest cover in East Texas using Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data. Forest Ecology and Management 218(1-3): 342-352.
  • Perotto-Baldiviezo, H.L., T.L. Thurow, C.T. Smith, R.F. Fisher, X.B. Wu. 2004. GIS-based spatial analysis and modeling for landslide hazard assessment in steeplands, southern Honduras. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 103: 165-176.
  • South, David B., Curtis L. Vanderschaaf and C.T. Smith. 2003. Number of trees per experimental unit is important when comparing transplant stress index values. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 33(1): 126-132.
  • Farnsworth, A., Summerfelt, P., Neary, D.G. and T. Smith. 2003. Flagstaff’s wildfire fuels treatments: prescriptions for community involvement and a source of bioenergy. Biomass & Bioenergy 24 (4-5): 269-276.
  • Sun, O.J., Gielen, G.J.H.P., Sands, R., Smith, C.T. and Thorn, A.J. 2001. Growth, Mg nutrition and photosynthetic activity in Pinus radiata: evidence that NaCl addition counteracts the impact of low Mg supply. Trees DOI 10.1007/s004680100111. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004680100111).
  • Scott, N.A., K.R. Tate, D.J. Giltrap, C.T. Smith, H.R. Wilde, P.J.F. Newsom and M.R. Davis. 2001. Monitoring land-use change effects on soil carbon in New Zealand: quantifying baseline soil carbon stocks. Environmental Pollution 116: S167-S186.
  • South, D.B. and C.T. Smith. 2000. Harvest treatments and fertiliser application affect transplant stress index ofPinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 30(3): 308-314.
  • Barton, L., Schipper, L. A., Smith, C. T. and McLay, C. D. A. 2000. Denitrification enzyme activity is limited by soil aeration in a wastewater-irrigated forest soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32: 385-389.
  • Smith, C.T., A.T. Lowe, M.F. Skinner, P.N. Beets, S.H. Schoenholtz and Shengzuo Fang. 2000. Response of radiata pine forests to residue management and fertilisation across a fertility gradient in New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management 138: 203-223.
  • Briggs, R.D., J. W. Hornbeck, C.T. Smith, R.C. Lemin, Jr., and M.L. McCormack, Jr. 2000. Long-term effects of forest management on nutrient cycling in spruce-fir forests. Forest Ecology and Management 138: 285- 299.
  • Barton, L., McLay, C. D. A., Schipper, L. A. and Smith, C. T. 1999. Annual denitrification rates in agricultural and forest soils: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37: 1073-93.
  • Barton, L., McLay, C.D.A., Schipper, L.A. and Smith, C.T. 1999. Denitrification rates in a wastewater-irrigated forest soil in New Zealand. J. Environmental Quality 28(6): 2008-2014.
  • Hallett, R.A., Bowden, W.B., Smith, C.T. 1999. Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils after municipal sludge additions.Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 112(3-4): 259-278.
  • Scott, N.A., K.R. Tate, J. Ford-Robertson, D.J. Giltrap and C.T. Smith. 1999. Soil carbon storage in plantation forests and pastures: land-use change implications. Tellus 51B: 326-335.
  • Barton, L., McLay, C.D.A., Schipper, L.A. and Smith, C.T. 1998. Procedures for characterising denitrification rates in a wastewater-irrigated forest soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 36: 997-1008.
  • Catricala, C.E., W.B. Bowden, C.T. Smith, and W.H. McDowell. 1996. Chemical characteristics of leachate from pulp and paper mill residuals used to reclaim a sandy soil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 89: 167-187.
  • Smith, C.T., A.T. Lowe, P.N. Beets, and W.J. Dyck. 1994. Nutrient accumulation in second-rotation Pinus radiata after harvest residue management and fertiliser treatment of coastal sand dunes. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 24 (2/3): 362-389.
  • Smith, C.T. 1995. Environmental consequences of intensive harvesting. Biomass and Bioenergy 9 (1-5): 161-179.
  • Ross, D.J., G.P. Sparling, C.M. Burke, and C.T. Smith. 1995. Microbial biomass C and N, and mineralizable-N, in litter and mineral soil under Pinus radiata on a coastal sand: Influence of stand age and harvest management. Plant & Soil 175: 167-177.
  • Smith, C.T. 1994. Is plantation forestry good or bad for soils? New Zealand Forestry 39(2): 19-22.
  • Medalie, L., W.B. Bowden, and C.T. Smith. 1994. Nutrient leaching following land application of aerobically digested municipal sewage sludge in a northern hardwood forest. J. Environ. Qual. 23: 130-138.
  • Smith, C.T., W.J. Dyck, P.N. Beets, P.D. Hodgkiss, and A.T. Lowe. 1994. Nutrition and productivity of Pinus radiata following harvest disturbance and fertilization of coastal sand dunes. For. Ecol. and Manage. 66: 5- 38.
  • Federer, C.A., D.E. Turcotte, and C.T. Smith. 1993. The organic fraction – bulk density relationship and the expression of nutrient content in forest soils. Can J. For. Res. 23: 1026-1032.
  • Parmele, V.N., D.G. Hodges, A.E. Luloff, and C.T. Smith. 1993. Foresters and the adoption of management innovations: A case study for forest soils information in New Hampshire. Can. J. For. Res. 23(2): 159-165.
  • Hodges, D.G., V.N. Parmele, A.E. Luloff, and C.T. Smith, Jr. 1992. The use and perceived importance of forest soils information by New Hampshire foresters. J. Soil and Water Conserv. 47(3): 268-271.
  • Turcotte, D.E., C.T. Smith, and C.A. Federer. 1991. Soil disturbance following whole-tree harvesting in north-central Maine. No. J. Appl. For. 8(2):66-72.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., C.T. Smith, Q.W. Martin, L.M. Tritton, and R.S. Pierce. 1990. Effects of intensive harvesting on nutrient capitals of three forest types in New England. For. Ecol. and Management 30: 55-64.
  • Federer, C.A., J.W. Hornbeck, L.M. Tritton, C.W. Martin, R.S. Pierce, and C.T. Smith. 1989. Long-term depletion of calcium and other nutrients in eastern U.S. forests. Environ. Mgmt. 13(5):593-601.
  • Smith, C.T., Jr., M.L. McCormack, Jr., J.W. Hornbeck and C.W. Martin. 1986. Nutrient and biomass removals from a red spruce – balsam fir whole-tree harvest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16:381-388.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., C.W. Martin and C.T. Smith. Protecting forest streams during whole-tree harvesting. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 3:97-100, Sept. 1986.
  • Mann, L.K., D.W. Johnson, D.C. West, D.W. Cole, J.W. Hornbeck, C.W. Martin, H. Reikerk, C.T. Smith, W.T. Swank, L.M. Tritton, and D.H. Van Lear. 1988. Effects of whole-tree and stem-only clearcutting onpostharvest hydrologic losses, nutrient capital, and regrowth. For. Sci. 34 (2): 412-428.

Book Chapters

  • Pelkmans L, Goovaerts L, Goh CS, Junginger M, van Dam J, Stupak I, Smith CT, Chum H, Englund O, Berndes G,Cowie A, Thiffault E, Fritsche U, Thrän D 2013. The role of sustainability requirements in international bioenergy markets. In: Junginger M, Goh CS, Faaij A (Eds.) International Bioenergy Trade: History, status & outlook on securing sustainable bioenergy supply, demand and markets. Springer, Dordrecht. 233 pp.
  • Gan, J., C. Hanson, B. Lattimore, G.B.M. Pedroli, E.M. Remedio, and C.T. Smith . 2012. Socio-economic benefits and challenges. Chapter 13. In: Biofuels in Practice: Technological, Socio-economical and Sustainability Perspectives. Edited by Luc Van Ginneken and Luc Pelkmans. Series in Advanced Topics in Environmental Science. ILM Publications. December 2012. ISBN: 9781906799113.
  • Asikainen, A., P. Anttila, J. Heinimö, T. Smith, I. Stupak and W.F. Quirino. 2010. CHAPTER 10. Forests and bioenergy production. p. 183-200. In: Forests and Society – Responding to Global Drivers of Change. A IUFRO-WFSE Publication. Available at: http://www.iufro.org/typo3temp/GB/d8333c2531.png
  • Smith, C. T.; Carnus, J-M.; Wang, H., Gielen, G., Stuthridge, T.; Tomer, M.D. 2003. Chapter 2.7. Land application of chemi-thermo mechanical pulp and paper mill effluent in New Zealand: from research to practice. pp. 177-187. In: Stuthridge, T., van den Heuvel, M., Marvin, N., Slade, A., Gifford, J. (eds.). Environmental impacts of pulp and paper waste streams. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Environmental Fate and Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents, Rotorua, New Zealand, 9-13 November 1997. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL, USA.
  • Smith, C.T., A.T. Lowe, M.F. Skinner, P.N. Beets, S.H. Schoenholtz and S. Fang. 2001. Response of radiata pine forests to residue management and fertilisation across a fertility gradient in New Zealand. pp. 203-223. In: Boyle, J.R. and R.F. Powers (eds.). 2001. Forest Soils and Ecosystem Sustainability. Selected and edited papers from the Ninth North American Forest Soils Conference held at Tahoe City, California, USA, 9-14 August 1998. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 462 pp.
  • Smith, C.T., A.D. Gordon, T.W. Payn., B. Richardson, S.H. Schoenholtz, M.F. Skinner, P. Snowdon and G.G. West. 2001. Indicators for sustained productive capacity of New Zealand and Australian plantation forests. pp. 183 – 197. In: Raison, R.J., Brown, A.G. and Flinn, D.W. (eds.). Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. IUFRO Research Series, No. 7. CABI Publishing, CABI International, Wallingford, UK. 462 pp.
  • Smith, C.T. and R.J. Raison. 1998. Utility of Montreal Process Indicators for soil conservation in native forests and plantations in Australia and New Zealand. Chapter 7. pp. 121-135. In: Adams, M.B., K. Ramakrishna and E.A. Davidson (eds.). 1998. The Contribution of Soil Science to the Development of and Implementation of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management. SSSA Special Publication no. 53. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
  • Van Miegroet, H.; Zabowski, D.; Smith, C.T.; and Lundkvist, H. 1994: Review of measurement techniques in site productivity studies. pp. 287-362. In: Dyck, W.J.; Cole, D.W.; Comerford, N.B. (eds.) 1994: Impacts of Forest Harvesting on Long-term Site Productivity. Chapman & Hall, London. 304 p.